The sector of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like lots of other markets, has altered significantly in recent years. Although the standard formulations have undergone small modifications, the manufacturing technologies have transformed dramatically (this uses specifically to the methods of forming little products as well as tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this chapter, it appears appropriate to mention just these modifications, yet extra on those later put on certain dishes.
Various teams of confectionery products need certain molding approaches so that they can be covered as well as packaged in the most appropriate method offer for sale. Possibly the most effective development was the bread bar. These bars allow you to use cost-efficient methods of production, product packaging as well as display screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were noticeable renovations in the packaging – both in the products used and in the sealing techniques. Most of benches in order to guarantee long shelf life, to protect versus insect damages and also contamination require safety packaging. We think about these consider separate phases.
We have currently thought about the production of delicious chocolate, and also therefore it is clear that delicious chocolate and complex glazes have a mostly fatty basis, their wetness content is really low (usually less than 1%), and the active ingredients are not in aqueous option.
In lots of confectionery processes, the dissolving ability of sugar (sucrose) is considered independently or in mix with other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are two main teams of sugar confectionery products: a) products in which sugar is entirely liquified, and b) items in which sugar is partly dissolved, and partially existing in the form of tiny solid crystals put on hold in solution. These items may be modified with various other active ingredients (for instance, milk and fats). The very first team consists of hard candy, hard and soft milk desserts, toffee and most jelly sweets. The second group consists of items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and also nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline structure.
Review confectionery production modern technologies
Below we will see that all the selection of textures acquired is a result of using numerous technological processes and formulations, every one of which need unique techniques for the development of individual products. Right here we take a look at basic modern technology concerns, and see their details uses in various other sections of this book.
Smearing and also cutting
The equipment is equipped with cooled rolls, which allow you to feed the item straight from the gadget, where it is prepared, to home plate developing tools. After molding and also lamination, the plates are fed to an air conditioning tool, and then to conventional cutting gadgets and also spreaders. Then the items are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is possibly the oldest technique of generating bars (floor tiles) as well as specific products from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as various pastes. A confectionery item in a proper plastic state, figured out by its dampness, fat content or temperature level, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the needed thickness. This plate is then fed to cutting tools to generate large strips, which are after that cut into slim tiles or bars. Currently, the warm item is fed to cooled rolls, allowing to acquire multilayer plates. The plates are continually cut into strips that go through the (” spreading out maker)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or tiny pieces. An instance of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is utilized for the manufacturing of candies, fondant and jelly sweets, some sorts of milk candies and also fudge, marshmallows as well as other products that can be gotten in liquid form.
Some products in liquid kind may be built at a temperature level of about 150 ° C in a steel mold whose surface is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These products are typically cast into cells formed in starch (see below the area “Fondant coverings”). A more current growth is the automatic precipitation as well as removal of fondant shells and also some other confectionery items making use of steel mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the rainfall of sugar as well as toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky product that has unique residential properties and also is resistant to relatively heats, common for the production of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies almost specifically to candy caramel and some kinds of toffee. The typical flavored candies, sugary foods with a filler as well as “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool the made syrup under regulated problems up until it reaches a ductile state. In this state, the product is changed into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the ended up items (normally of a particular form or with a pattern) are obtained from it. The resulting items are right away sent out to the air conditioning cupboard as well as covering maker.
To obtain some types of sugar and also chewy candies, a variation of this method is made use of, in which the harness gotten in a comparable way is fed to a cutting-wrapping machine, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, small pieces are cut from it that pertained to the covering equipment.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The concept of extrusion, executed in the production of lots of non-food products, has actually been effectively applied in the confectionery market. The application of this procedure to the manufacturing of various products– from soft materials such as marshmallows as well as fondant desserts to very plastic nougat and milk delicious chocolates– is defined in  In this case, the product based on extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of numerous rolls or augers. The nozzle hole profile establishes the shape of the final product, and lots of extruders are outfitted with a variety of nozzles that develop harnesses that can be cut into bars or little pieces. In fig. 19.2 programs numerous rolls for extruders, and fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder random sample with a device for cutting off little pieces from the strands. In fig. 19.4 shows the style of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of chewing periodontal and also eating sweet.
The design of the NID bar extruder is a little different. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers similarly as in other extruders, yet the product to be formed is fed to a 2nd profile roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make sure simple separation of the material and is used to shape the bars right into the needed shape. The pins help remove the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from an additional confectionery product. Extrusion works well with other continual manufacturing and glazing techniques.
When extrusion confectionery should observe specific preventative measures.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature level is of fundamental relevance, specifically when it comes to milk sweet and also nougat, the uniformity of which is very depending on temperature level. Small fluctuations in temperature level can cause big changes in extrusion stress. For soft milk sweets, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is usually used, yet much relies on the sort of item, and the precise temperature level.
Excursion problems must be identified empirically. Reduced temperatures and also high pressures create ko of extruder safety plugs.
Separation of fat … If fat divides during extrusion, this signifies inadequate emulsification. Enhancement is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the formula.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some products lose their form, as well as the strip, which is nearly round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might come to be noticeably flatter. This is due to numerous factors:.
too expensive a moisture material;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as may be also soft;.
the protein of any kind of dairy products active ingredient is not effectively spread;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has actually created or has been destroyed by excessive stirring after crystal formation. This flaw can be really subtle, as well as in constant fudge manufacturing, its appearance depends on the minute the crystallizing lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is possible to identify the ideal problems for a particular devices just experimentally. Companies focusing on the manufacturing of extrusion equipment have accomplished a huge amount of study in the layout of equipments for the extrusion of confectionery products of different consistencies. For some products – such as gummies and also eating periodontal – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These innovations are explained in various other areas of the book.
The concept of panning is currently defined in Chapter 5. There are 2 types of sugar rolling – tough and loosened. With tough knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and syrup are built up on the preferred body (as an example, nuts) and dried out with warm air passing between the applied layers. Loose knurling is executed in a comparable method, yet making use of cold modern technology. Soft shells are utilized (for instance, pasta, jelly, soft milk loading), as well as the finish is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup and also powdered sugar. After getting to the desired size and weight of the covering, the candies are partly dried and covered with polish. The procedure is fully mechanized, including loading and discharging the containers, automated splashing of syrups (or delicious chocolate), as well as control of drying or cooling air to the containers.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is usually signified in English by the word “creme” (cream), yet some standard products use the alternative “cream”, and in different nations it is called in different ways.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and focusing by steaming to a remedy having regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this option is supersaturated with sugar and unpredictable, as well as if it is quickly stirred and also cooled down, after that the excess sugar befalls of the remedy in the form of tiny crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a strong stage of sugar crystals suspended in a liquid stage consisting of a saturated service of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling down big crystals are developed. Beating in itself offers poor outcomes, since a large amount of latent heat of crystallization is launched. If the whipped syrup is left warm, condensation decreases as well as subsequent slow cooling results in the development of huge crystals. Fondant of high quality must be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared using only sugar, which was dissolved in water and concentrated by boiling to regarding the level of 88-90% ST. Given that the solubility of sugar at regular temperatures is just 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is really unstable and crystallizes upon fast air conditioning, “giving” huge crystals.
To conquer this downside, an additive was made use of that triggered the inversion of a part of the sugar and also raised the general solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, extra preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized as such ingredients. The development of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in another chapter, yet right here we just keep in mind that such additives decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and also fructose. Fructose is far more soluble (about 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and its existence with dextrose enables the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This method of application of the additive is very undependable, because the quantity of invert sugar developed differs substantially depending on the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and the solidity of the water used. Best outcomes are gotten by adding to the sugar syrup a particular amount of invert sugar, prepared separately.
Lipstick, made from sugar as well as invert sugar, has a granular framework and is extremely sweet in preference (it is rarely used in modern-day confectionery manufacturing). Sugar (corn) syrup has actually replaced invert sugar in lipstick solutions; it is less wonderful, and the presence of complex carbohydrates manages the formation of crystals as well as provides a more thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) texture.